1. Author of texts and photographs: Ing. Jindrich Vincalek, CE-F

               Place of work: Stud farm Měník


           2. Literary review : Horseshoeing, ISBN: 978-80-7490-052-5, Print Pálka 2015


           3. Patient data: No. 4.3.1.

               Breed: Czech Warmblood

               Sex: Mare

               Age: Born 31.1.2014

               Color: Sorrel

               Work use: Breeding and training of breeding mares, preparation for dressage and parkour

Title (diagnosis): 4.3.1. Congenital angular deformity of foal - knock kneed (carpus valgus)


  • Problem description: Seen from the front (frontal plane), the foal is standing with carpal joints close to each other and the hooves apart.

  • Duration of the problem: four weeks from birth

  • Stabling: In a box with the mother  

  • Feed : The foal is sucking

  • Bedding : Straw

  • Frequency of hoof treatment : 2x in the last 14 days - by farrier

  • Fitting type: None

  • Lameness, possible diagnosis: The foal shows no lameness or irregular movement. He moves in the herd without any problems.

4. Anamnesis

Fig. No. 1 and 2 .: Conformation of the forelegs of the foal when viewed from the front shortly after birth

5.1. Characteristics of changes:

Angular deformities of the foals' limbs are caused by the laxity of the collateral ligaments of the affected joint on the side of its longer circumference. In this case, the internal carpal ligament was lax and the carpus breaks in when loaded with a limb. On the outside of the carpus, on the other hand, the joint and the growth zone above the carpus are compressed. At the site of the overloaded part of the growth zone, the ability of long bone to grow is limited and therefore untreated angular deformities may worsen.



5.2. Conformation of limbs:

The foal was born with a valgus deformity in the carpus on both front limbs. In addition, on the left limb, the carpus valgus is accompanied by a deviated metacarpus and external rotation of the entire limb. This combination exerts even more pressure on the outer part of the carpus, which results in greater inflammation of the growth zone above the joint. A deviation of 16 ° was measured on the right limb and 23 ° on the left limb, which are relatively large values ​​(see Fig. 3 - 6).



5.3. Hoof shapes and pathological changes:

The hoof of the right affected limb (see Fig. No. 7) has not yet been deformed by limb deviation and did not show any pathological changes. The left hoof is already beginning to show signs of internal overload due to a combination of carpal and metacarpal abnormalities. Its inner hoof wall is more underrun and has a concave shape.



5.4. Evaluation of trim and shoeing after birth  

Foals can be trimmed from 7 to 10 days after birth and this one was trimmed twice up to four weeks of age. With such large deviations, the usual adjustment of the hooves does not have a sufficient effect on the positive change in the conformation of the limbs.

5. Case description

6.1. Chosen trim:

Both hooves of the forelegs were trimmed by appropriately paring the foot and the frog and shortening their lateral halves. To the height of the hem of the plastic lining, we rasp the hoof wall up to the heel edges to create a clean surface (see Fig. No. 8 and 9).

6. Chosen measures

Fig. No. 3 and 4 .: View of the front limbs of the foal from the front and detail of the knock kneed carpus and deviated metacarpus of on the left limb.

Fig. No. 5: Inflammation of the growth zone above the carpus

Fig. No. 6: Measurement of deviations in the left front limb.

Fig. No. 7: Front hooves when viewed from the front and detail of the left hoof (right)

Fig. No. 8 and 9 .: Rasping of the front hooves and detail of the hoof after


Fig. No. 10 and 11 .: Removal of a thin felt layer from the adhesive rim of the Dallmer's shoe.

6.2. Shoe preparation:

Dallmer's glue-on shoe size 2 for foals with medial extension was chosen for shoeing. A thin felt layer is glued to the inner surface of the gluing rim, used to soak up the glue in the case of gluing the shoe with methacrylate glue. In our case, we used Superfast for gluing and for that it is necessary to remove the felt layer (see Fig. No. 10 and 11).

Giant. No. 12. - 14 .: Marking of important points on Dalmer's shoe according to the trimmed hoof of the foal, lowering of the hem and its screwing.

Fig. 15.: It is advisable to clean the shoe and hoof with alcohol before gluing

Before gluing, we attach the horseshoe to the hoof and mark the center, length and height of the hem in the heels and, with the help of the free half of the hem, also the width of the horseshoe. After the modifications, we screw the free part of the hem to the base (see Fig. 12 - 14). During the modifications, we keep the shoes clean and, above all, prevent any transfer of grease. It is advisable to use clean gloves, as any dirt limits the durability and quality of adhesion.

Fig. No. 16.

Fig. No. 17.

Fig. No. 18.

Fig. No. 19.

6.3. Shoeing:

Before gluing, we must be sure that the hoof is dry and not greasy. It is more reliable to degrease the hooves just before gluing with alcohol and carefully dry them with a hot air gun (see Fig. 15 - 17). For good gluing, we must have a quiet foal standing for at least 1 minute when using Superfast. Methacrylate adhesives harden for 3-5 minutes and therefore it is advisable to have enough helpers for fixation or to sedate the foal. If the ambient temperature is low, it is advisable to heat the glue and the liner to a temperature of 25 - 30 ° C with a hot air gun before gluing (see Fig. 18). The superfast hardens faster and the warm hem of the heel adapts better to the shape of the hoof. Then, while fixing the foal limb, apply an appropriate amount of glue to the gluing rim and place the shoe under stronger pressure on the hoof to the center mark (see Fig. 19 - 20.) Under optimal conditions, we can let the foal step on the limb after 1 minute.

Fig. No. 20.

Fig. No. 21.

Fig. 21 - 23: The lowering of the outer half of the hooves and the gluing of the shoe with a large medial extension significantly shifts the center of gravity towards the imaginary vertical axis of the straight limb and acts in the same direction on the deviated part of the limb.

Fig. No. 22.

Fig. No. 23.

6.4. Veterinary measures:

After consultation with a veterinarian, elevation of the periosteum or carpal growth zone has been postponed for the time being.


6.5. Principles of further care:

Stabling on a hard surface, adequate movement, regular check up on effectiveness of orthopedic measures, adjustment and gluing of extension shoes after 7 - 14 days.

7.1. Effect of the 1st selected hoof trim:

The initial attempt to compensate for deviations only by adjusting the hooves was not effective at such extent.



7.2. Changes in the choice of horseshoes and shoeing:

At 32 days of age, the growth zones of the finger are already sufficiently strengthened, and therefore it is possible to apply more effective extension measures to the carpal area, such as Dallmer's adhesive plastic liners with medial extension (see Fig. 7-23).



7.3. Effect of farriery measures:

The lowering of the outer half of the hooves and the adhesion of the shoe with a large medial extension significantly shifts the center of gravity towards the imaginary vertical axis of the straight limb and acts in the same direction on the deviated part of the limb (see Fig. 21 - 23).



7.4. Care result:

The effect of the selected orthopedic measures was sufficient during the third gluing of the extension shoes. At 74 days of age, the shoes were removed and further care was to regularly check and properly trim the hooves. The limbs were not completely straight, but the external deformations of the limbs are physiological and a good farrier must be able to predict the further development of the foal. In many cases, complete alignment of the foal limbs means deformities in the opposite direction in adulthood. At less than eight months of age, the foal's limbs were almost straight, balanced by farrier's care and its own development. Fig - 22.23

Fig. No. 2: 1 week old foal

Fig. No. 23: 1 gluing Dallmer extensional horseshoes

Fig. No. 24: 3 gluing Dallmer extensional horseshoes

Fig. No. 25: age 8 months

7. Development of changes

Angular deformities in foals can be successfully corrected with the help of soft growth zones, which gradually strengthen until the age of about 8 weeks. During this period, redress is most effective. With advancing age, orthopedic measures are less and less effective. Efficiency is conditioned by regular farrier care and adherence to correct breeding principles.

8. Conclusion for practice